The program is designed to prepare research-oriented learners for careers in research or scholarly inquiry and teaching at the college or university level. The program equips research-oriented educators with sound philosophical theories and practices in education attuned to the needs and demands of a highly globalized society. A dissertation needs to be defended to complete the program. For an alternative to a dissertation, students can enroll in the Option 2-degree program, the DOCTOR OF SPECIAL NEEDS AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION, which focuses on the application of knowledge to solve professional challenges. A capstone culminates the program.